meaning the loving or affectionate one) is a Philippine dance of Hispanic origin from the Maria Clara suite of Philippine folk dances, where the fan or handkerchief plays an instrumental role as it places the couple in romance scenario.

The tinikling is one of the most popular and well-known of traditional Philippine dances.[1] The tinikling is a pre-Spanish dance from the Philippines that involves two people beating, tapping, and sliding bamboo poles on the ground and against each other in coordination with one or more dancers who step over and in between the poles in a dance. The name is a reference to birds locally known as tikling, which can be any of a number of rail species; the term tinikling literally means “tikling-like.”[2]

Tinikling involves five steps; during the first four steps, the dancers dance opposite each other, and during the last step, they start from the same side of the poles. The bamboo is also used as a percussive instrument as it is banged against the ground (or a piece of wood to make it easier to hold) and each other in a pattern. The bamboo has to be closed hard enough to make a sound, and the dancers must be quick enough to not get their foot (or feet) caught. As the dance continues, the banging of the bamboo becomes faster and harder, the sound of the clashing bamboo and the quickness of feet demonstrated by the dancers thrilling and awing the crowd. In the United States, this dance had been altered into a four-beat rhythm to adjust to popular music. In some cases, it has been used in conjunction with traditional Filipino martial arts to demonstrate fleetness of foot and flow of movement.[3]

The dance originated in Leyte among the Visayan islands in the central Philippines as an imitation of the tikling bird dodging bamboo traps set by rice farmers. The dance imitates the movement of the tikling birds as they walk between grass stems, run over tree branches, or dodge bamboo traps set by rice farmers. Dancers imitate the tikling bird’s legendary grace and speed by skillfully maneuvering between large bamboo poles.

Ang Lupang Hinirang ay ang pambansang awit ng Pilipinas. Binuo ni Julian Felipe ang himig nuong 1898 at ang mga titik ng awit naman ay inangkop mula sa tulang Filipinas na isinulat ni Jose Palma sa wikang Kastila nuong 1899.

Nagsimula ito bilang isang martsang pang-instrumental na ipinag-atas ni Emilio Aguinaldo na gamitin sa pagpapahayag ng kalayaan ng Pilipinas mula sa Espanya. Marcha Filipina Magdalo ang unang pangalan nito ngunit binago at naging Marcha Nacional Filipina matapos hirangin ito bilang pambansang awit ng Unang Republika ng Pilipinas. Una itong tinugtog ng bandang San Francisco De Malabon sa araw ng pagpapahayag ng kalayaan noong Hunyo 12, 1898. Ang mga titik ng awit ay idinagdag na lamang matapos isulat ni Jose Palma ang tulang Filipinas nuong Agosto 1899.

Naisipan ng pamahalaang kolonyal ng Estados Unidos noong dekada 1920 na isalin ang pambansang awit sa Ingles mula sa Kastila matapos na mapawalang bisa ang Flag Law[1]. Ang pinaka-tanyag na pagsasalin ay ang “Philippine Hymn” na ginawa nina Senador Camilo Osias at isang Amerikano na si Mary A. Lane. Ito ang ginawang opisyal na pagsasalin ng Kapulungan ng Pilipinas noong 1938.

Ang mga pagsasalin ng pambansang awit sa Tagalog ay ginawa noong dekada 1940. Ang pinaka-tanyag sa mga salin na ito ay ang O Sintang Lupa na sinulat ni Julian Cruz Balmaceda, Ildefonso Santos at Francisco Caballo. Ito ang naging pambansang awit noong 1948.

Nagbuo naman ng komisyon ang Kalihim ng Edukasyon na si Gregorio Hernandez upang baguhin ang mga salitang Tagalog ng pambansang awit noong panunungkulan ni Pangulong Ramon Magsaysay. Naging bunga nito ang pambansang awit na Lupang Hinirang na unang inawit nuong Mayo 26, 1956. May mga kaunti pang mga pagbabago ang idinagdag nuong 1962 na ginagamit hanggang sa kasalukuyan.

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